BakerRisk has extensive experience in research, development, and the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools to simulate dispersion, explosion, and fire-related phenomena. Four different CFD packages are described below.
The FLACS (FLame ACceleration Simulator) CFD code has been utilized by BakerRisk to model flammable gas release and dispersions, VCE (vapor cloud explosions) blast loads, as well as heat exhaust plumes and dispersion for both on-shore and off-shore facilities. FLACS can be used for the evaluation of VCE hazards at on-shore facilities such as refineries and chemical processing plants, but it is better known for its capabilities in the offshore industry. The code is also capable of modeling explosion mitigation features (e.g., grating, vent panels and openings, water spray, etc.) used for the management of explosion hazards. BakerRisk has numerous projects using FLACS for both dispersion and VCE blast load evaluations.
BWTI™ (Blast Wave Target Interaction) was developed by BakerRisk to simulate the generation and propagation of blast and shock waves and their interaction with structures. The code is capable of modeling blast waves resulting from VCE, pressure vessel bursting, and high explosive detonations. The main application areas for this code are engineering-level analyses involving scenarios where blast wave shielding and focusing are relevant.
PHOENICS (Parabolic Hyperbolic or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series) is a sophisticated code that numerically simulates flow and reaction problems. BakerRisk has employed this program to model the thermal, flammable, and toxic impact on structures and personnel for both onshore and offshore facilities. Combustion, reaction, heat and mass transfer models implemented in PHOENICS can range from simple to sophisticated. PHOENICS allows the user to choose among several models based upon the nature of the problem, time available, and accuracy needed.
FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator), developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology of the US Department of Commerce, is a fire-driven fluid flow model . FDS is designed to model heat and smoke transport from fires but can also be used for other low-speed fluid flow simulations that do not necessarily include fire or thermal effects. Smokeview, a companion program used to produce images and animations, is an integral part of the physical model allowing the user to assess the visibility within a fire compartment.
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