Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
PHOENICS (Parabolic Hyperbolic or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series) is a sophisticated code that utilizes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to numerically simulate different types of engineering problems, such as flow and reaction problems, using a highly accurate set of flow and reaction models. BakerRisk has employed this program to model the thermal, flammable, and toxic impact on structures and personnel for both onshore and offshore facilities. CFD is the mathematical simulation of fluid dynamics problems using the physical and mathematical formulas and equations that govern the flow problems. Combustion, reaction, heat and mass transfer models implemented in PHOENICS can range from simple to sophisticated. PHOENICS allows the user to choose among several models based upon the nature of the problem, time available, and accuracy needed. PHOENICS was developed by CHAM, in 1977 in the U.K., but first appeared as a software package in 1980.
Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology of the US Department of Commerce, is a CFD model of fire-driven fluid flow. FDS solves numerically a form of the Navier-Stokers Equations for thermally-driven flow with an emphasis on heat and smoke transport from fires, while at the same time it can be used for other low-speed fluid flow simulations that do not necessarily include fire or thermal effects. FDS uses Smokeview as a companion program to produce images and animations of fire and smoke. Smokeview, via its realistic three-dimensional renderings, is an integral part of the physical model allowing the user to assess the visibility within a fire compartment.
BWTI™ (Blast Wave Target Interaction) is an “in-house” code developed by BakerRisk to simulate the generation and propagation of blast and shock waves and the interaction of such waves with structures. The code is capable of modeling blast waves resulting from vapor cloud explosions (VCE), pressure vessel bursting (PBV), and high explosive (HE) detonations. The main application areas for this code are engineering-level analyses involving scenarios where blast wave shielding and focusing are relevant, such that simplified methods which neglect these effects would not yield accurate results. BWTI™ is employed where the blast source is well described and the main focus of the evaluation is on the blast wave propagation and interaction (e.g., a bursting pressure vessel within an enclosure).
The FLACS (FLame ACceleration Simulator) CFD code has been utilized by BakerRisk to model flammable gas release and dispersions, VCE blast loads, as well as heat exhaust plumes and dispersion for both on-shore and off-shore facilities. FLACS was developed in the early 1980s by the Christian Michelsen Research Institute (CMR) in Norway, primarily for simulating the dispersion of gas leaks and subsequent explosions in off-shore oil and gas production platforms. FLACS can be used for the evaluation of VCE hazards at on-shore facilities such as refineries and chemical processing plants, but it is better known for its capabilities in the offshore industry. The code is also capable of modeling explosion mitigation features (e.g., grating, vent panels and openings, water spray, etc.) used for the management of explosion hazards. BakerRisk has numerous projects using FLACS for both dispersion and VCE blast load evaluations.