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author

Dan Benac

published on

March 2024

Introduction

Urea plant equipment operates at elevated temperatures and is exposed to corrosive environments that can potentially limit its life. Awareness of the corrosion-related mechanisms that can damage the equipment used in urea plants is essential in developing an appropriate solution for proper equipment inspection, damage mitigation, and failure prevention. The pertinent damage mechanisms can also provide input for fitness-for-service evaluations, as the specific mechanism and the rate of attack need to be understood in order to determine the remaining life expectancy of the equipment. For a proper risk-based inspection (RBI) programme or hazards analysis to be conducted, the appropriate mitigation methodologies available for urea equipment. Damage mechanisms must be identified so that the probability of failure can be determined in addressing reliability issues. 1,2,3.  This article provides examples and discussion regarding the carbamate corrosion damage mechanisms related to urea process parameters, materials of construction and process equipment, and inspection methods and characterisation techniques to identify each form of damage. Additionally, useful tips for considering potential mitigation methods are provided.

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